1. (4) waste
2. (3) energy
3. (2) comparing the scientific concept to a familiar human experience
4. (2) the way in which the organism invests its energy resources
5. (3) distribution
6. (1) Because their seeds grow in places where competing plants are no longer present, dandelions are classified as opportunists.
7. (1) huge
8. (4) the large number of acorns the tree produces
9. (2) they spend more energy on their leaves, trunks and roots than their acorns
10. (4) have some characteristics of opportunists and some of competitors
11. (3) Such episodic events will cause a population of dandelions, for example, to vary widely.
12. competitors: b, e, h opportunists: c, d, f, i
13. (3) beasts
14. (1) Ways
15. (4) Artists developed special techniques for painting the walls.
16. (2) To contrast the location of their rock paintings to those found at Lascaux
17. (3) They developed their own sources of light to use while painting
18. (3) Tosuggest a possible explanation for a weakness in an opinion expressed in the passage
19. (3) were associated with
20. (3) Because some of the animals are shown wounded by weapons
21. (4) To give a possible reason for the strange appearance of the men painted on the cave walls
22. (1) to look like an animal while a hunt took place
23. (3) Too many years have gone by since the images were painted.
24. (1) This made it easy for the artists to paint and display them for the rest of the cave dwellers
25. a, d, e
26. (4) Collections of wind turbines producing electric power
27. (3) release
28. (2) They contain remote areas where the winds rarely die down
29. (2) These periods provide the opportunity to produce and store energy for future use
30. (4) backup systems are needed
31. (2) Possible solutions are known for both problems.
32. (3) the killing of birds of prey by wind turbines
33. (3) Some of the best locations for large wind farms are places that may cause problems for migrating birds and birds of prey.
34. (4) To suggest that wind turbines result in relatively few bird deaths
35. (4) total
36. (1) estimate
37. (2) The advantages of wind energy outweigh the disadvantages
38. (4) Some companies in the power industry are aware of this wider possibility and are planning sizable wind-farm projects in states other than California.
39. a, c, e
1. (D) means
2. (A) provides
3. (A) credited
4. (A) revealed information about
5. (A) refer to
6. (D) however
1. (2) The founder of their religion had been a merchant
2. (2) roads
3. (2) Ancient rulers
4. (1) support the idea that the roads allowed goods to move quickly
5. (2) Moreover, when fitted with special saddles, camels can carry heavy loads.
6. (2) preferred
7. (2) Inns that offered lodging for merchants and their animals called caravanserais popped up in major cities in the Islamic word to accommodate the increased traffic of camel caravans.
8. (3) they incorporated technology from both the east and the West
9. (2) visiting
10. (10) also aided the economic expansion
11. (3) They allowed business partners to trade goods without having to meet with each other.
12. (4) They wanted to limit their potential losses.
13. (2)Muslim merchants developed a trading network that connected three continents.
14. d, e, g
1. (1) less than ten percent
2. (1) cells
3. (3) heart surgery which limits the amount of activities people can enjoy
4. (1) level
5. (1) be enough
6. (2) a worry of becoming fat
7. (2) They believe they are fat.
8. (3) Such a distorted self-image may prevent recognition of the need for medical help
9. (2) die quickly
10. (3) teens and children
11. (3) They cannot maintain their strict diet without binging.
12. (2) rotten teeth
13. (2) unnatural ways of getting rid of foods ingested
14. (3) rip open
15. OBESITY=>b, e ANOREXIA NERVOSA=>c, k, j BULIMIA NEROSA=>a, i
1. (A) To resolve a dispute
2. (B) The information Muybridge relates may not be true
1. (B) increasing mobility
2. (D) instantly
3. (B) drilled
4. (A) octo pus's ability to squeeze through tiny spaces.
1. (D) Massive changes on land caused the extinction of many species.
1. (C ) Why is the loon able to fly so fast?
2. (C ) the location of its legs
1. (1) To demonstrate how important metals have been to human culture and technological development
2. (2) tiny
3. (3) used
4. (2) In the United States
5. (4) Sand is much more than metallic minerals
6. (2) extracted
7. (3) products with sulfuric acid
8. (1) Heat and pressure transform the remnants of living things in to oil, coal, and gas; therefore, these resources are considered organic.
9. (3) Because they are an important resource
10. (1) They have a potential to paralyze a country's economic power under some circumstance.
11. (1) circumstances under which economically desperate countries mine minerals
12. b, j, a, c, g, d, i
1. (1) They came from Africa.
2. (2) Important animals native to the Middle East
3. (3) people who did not know each other at all
4. (3) animal domestication and agriculture changed earlier human's living style.
5. (3) For non-nomadic people, possessions were no longer a burden, and these people began amassing things including works of art.
6. (2) people
7. (1) temporary
8. (2) wars
9. (2) Established settlements developed better stone weapons.
10. (2) To underscore the need for defense in early Middle Eastern societies
11. (3) The Middle Eastern languages.
12. c, a, d
1. (B) scientists were uncertain if an asteroid really had hit the earth.
1. (C) In paragraph 1, he author suggests that Susan B. Anthony
2. (D) 1906
1. (C) The marks gave the wearer a feeling of close relationship with others.
1. (C) Legislators had to be careful when dealing with issues between the northern and southern states.
1. (2) regularly
2. (2) racial unrest
3. (3) constant
4. (4) Developed nations are worried these nations will use the money to support their military
5. (3) suggest that Africa's population grows too fast
6. (1) People have farmed the land too much make it less productive.
7. (3) foolish
8. (1) It has interrupted the production of critical food stuffs.
9. (2) It has forced African government to limit its aid for poor people.
10. (1) Governments must reduce costs.
11. (2) For that reason, in 2000 the major industrial nations and the World Bank initiated a program to forgive the debts of some of these nations, on the condition that they end warfare and use the savings in interest and principal to ease the plight of their populations.
12. c, e, f
1. (2) society's
2. (2) respond to
3. (2) deciding how a society's resources can be best use to service its people.
4. (2) how leaders of the government are chosen
5. (3) indicate the difficulties to adhere to communism principles
6. (6) in theory
7. (2) Its economic system is in transition.
8. (1) allows
9. (3) Business would not be subject to regulatory law.
10. (2) Because individuals own most business and determine the direction of the economy
11. (4) not completely communist, socialist, or capitalist
12. (4) Perhaps as a result, many socialist countries are also experiencing economic turmoil.
13. communist => d, e, i Socialist => f, g Capitalist => g, h
1. (B) The building can be supported by steel bars in order to maintain structural continuity so that it can shake as a whole entity.
2. (A) The cratered surface of the moon has virtually preserved a record of interplanetary traffic over the past three billion years.
3. (A) Continuing interest in the moon is maintained by the possible existence of water and the moon's potential role as a midway station for interplanetary missions.
1. The following sentence can be added to paragraph 2.
As of the mid-1990's, the entire Internet encompassed millions of computers in over 130 countries across the world.
1. (2) question
2. (3) Native American believed that their civilization was flourishing prior to the arrival of Europeans.
3. (4) They didn't believe Indians were advanced enough to support a population more than a million.
4. (2) The author implies Mooney's number is too exact.
5. (2) They did not think the Europe present was as destructive as later scholars.
6. (1) a huge drop in the number of people in their community
7. (2) But in the 1960s and 1970s, scholars discovered that the early tribes had been catastrophically decimated by European plagues not long after the arrival of Columbu—that the numbers Europeans obersved even in the late 1500s were already dramatically smaller than the numbers in 1492.
8. (2) careful
9. (3) On average, scholars estimate there were between 50 and 70 million natives prior to Columbus's arrival.
10. (2) unequaled
11. (3) The estimates of the pre-1492 population have a direct impact on our understanding of how Europeans destroyed native American population.
12. a, e, c
1. (1) to allow the winner a total victory
2. (3) decision
3. (1) the law
4. (2) arbitration
5. (3) Court decisions allow parties to stay out of the news.
6. (3) united into
7. (1) overpowered
8. (3) To illustrate what kind of issue is used in mediation
9. (3) They are normally considered at a disadvantage in dispute resolutions.
10. (3) dangers
11. (1) Everyone's opinion would carry equal weight.
12. (2) Moreover, unlike other forms of dispute, mediation gives the illusion that all parts are equal.
13. a, e, b, c, f
1. (C) The source of hughes' inspiration
Page 133 => a, c, f
Page 138 => b, d, g, a, f
1. (1) It began while he was conducting another experiment.
2. (2) activate
3. (2) have likely had observations similar to pavlov's
4. (4) being followed by
5. (2) This because the salivation is an automatic response to the food.
6. (1) To prove withdrawal response could be conditioned to become associated with painful or negative stimulus
7. (3) The arrangement of Pavlov's experiment on classical conditioning allowed him to explore other important things.
8. (4) Animals can learn to ignore stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus, but are never followed by the unconditioned stimulus.
9. (1) the conditioned stimulus will eventually become a neutral stimulus
10. (1) to tell the difference between
11. (2) child
12. (2) provide an example of how the principals of classical conditioning can be used to treat people
1. (1) Paleontology and paleoanthropology
2. (3) Scientists must compare fossils with the other dated artifacts found nearby.
3. (1) stratum
4. (1) built up
5. (2) In other words, the fossils in a given stratum are younger than those in the layers below and older than those in the layers above.
6. (3) The first discovered fossils are unable to be dated using relative-dating techniques.
7. (2) Carbon-14 dating can be unstable.
8. (2) Animals eat plants and other animals that have carbon-14 atoms.
9. (3) carbon-14 turns into nitrogen-14 relatively quickly
10. (3) The mummy of a cat uncovered in Cairo.
11. (2) not accurate
12. (3) give
13. Stratigraphic dating=>a, d, e Carbon-14 dating=>b, f Potassium-argon dating=>g, i